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“Not copied from the books but from her brain, a clear incisive analysis of one of the most delicate legal questions.”

General Information[]

C. E. Ray, Esquire

Historical Description[]

The first African American female lawyer in the United States, Charlotte Ray had an intense drive for social justice and was inspired by her abolitionist parents, Charlotte Burroughs and Charles Ray. Her parents were active members of the Underground Railroad. Her mother was a pastor who fought to protect disabled women who were victims of slavery as well as for a woman’s right to vote. Charlotte Ray’s father was a pastor in two different congressional churches who owned and edited the newspaper The Colored American. While raising their six children, Burroughs and Ray placed the utmost importance on education and ensured that all their children attended college.

Charlotte Ray started her career as a teacher at Howard University’s Prep School in 1869, just two years after the school’s establishment. Driven by her desire for change, that same year she joined the school’s Law Department. To avoid discrimination, she registered under her initials C. E. Ray in order to mask her gender. She flourished in her area of study, and became the first woman to graduate Howard University with a Law degree. After receiving her degree, she used these initials again to take her Bar exam and became the first African American woman in U.S. history able to practice law. Later that year, she opened an independent practice specializing in commercial law.

Despite her practice’s focus, her largest successful case was Gadley v. Gadley, in which Ray represented a woman named Martha Gadley who was petitioning divorce from her abusive husband. Martha’s petition was initially denied, however Ray believed she could win in favor of the plaintiff if she appealed the court’s decision in the District of Columbia’s Supreme Court. Ray’s graphic recount of an incident Martha faced from her husband involving heavy drinking and an attack with an axe proved vital to her success, and Ray moved on to win that case and several others. Despite her reputation as a high-quality lawyer, there simply weren’t enough clients to keep her practice open due to the prejudicial stigma surrounding an African American woman lawyer, and Ray had to close her business. She later returned to teaching, this time in Brooklyn, New York, where she continued the fight for social justice until her death in 1911. While there are no known remaining photos of Charlotte Ray, she is commonly depicted by a photograph of a famous opera singer. The source of this confusion is unknown.

Councilor Benefits[]

Primary Chamber Seats[]

Benefits Common Uncommon Rare Epic Legendary
Enemy Wall HP -6% -8% -10% -13% -16%
Enemy Missile Silo DMG -5% -7% -9% -12%
General DMG +7% +9% +12%
General HP +9% +12%
Enemy Air Defense DMG -20%

War Chamber Seats[]

Benefits Common Uncommon Rare Epic Legendary
Wall HP -6% -8% -10% -13% -16%
Defensive Missile Silo DMG -5% -7% -9% -12%
General DMG +7% +9% +12%
General HP +9% +12%
Air Defense DMG -20%
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